Similarly, a 132kV loop network is used as another tutorial example to simulate and test the directional over-current relay's performance. This polarizing quantity may be line voltage, it may be a different current in the system, or it may even be a some combination where one signal provides backup in case the other polarizing signal becomes too weak. The proposed protection scheme equipped with directional overcurrent relays is tested using ETAP on a microgrid that consists of distributed energy resources like photovoltaic arrays, wind, diesel generator and micro hydro turbine for various fault locations. Simulation studies showed that the directional relay based on this new technique has fast speed operation with reliability and dependability. Though it is a very new and expensive concept, yet Bangladesh Government has showed positive approach. This paper demonstrates misoperation of these functions in a practical multi wind park system. In the presence of distributed generation (DG), it is important to assure a fast and reliable protection system for the distribution network to avoid unintentional DG disconnection during fault conditions. This requires measurement of both current and voltage using respective sensors. and discuss a number of protection solutions to the presented issues considering cost and reliability aspects. Directional Overcurrent Relay Test Plan Summary. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. With appropriate relay coordination they gain the ability to island generators and loads together. Therefore, using directional overcurrent protection relay is necessary to isolate the fault quickly and exactly. Given the fact that negative-sequence quantities manifest only during asymmetrical fault conditions, and that asymmetrical faults are more common than symmetrical faults, the ability to calculate these quantities during fault conditions and use them to make trip decisions is a powerful advantage indeed. The proposed tripping characteristicis described in detail. Create one now. BE1-67 relays are directionally controlled, microprocessor based, time overcurrent relays. Directional overcurrent relays (67) respond to excessive current flow in a particular direction in the power system. Traditional directional overcurrent relays utilize the reference voltage phasor for estimating the direction of the fault. One such application is generator protection, where an overcurrent relay monitors the amount of current at the point where an electrical power generator connects to a larger network of generators. This study proposes a multi-function power system protective relay hardware design built with various functional hardware processing cores on the field programmable gate array (FPGA). BE1-67 Directional Overcurrent Solid-State Protective Relay All items are guaranteed to be as described and in working condition. This practical and systematic method lends itself to a paralleled and pipelined hardware emulation of individual signal processing and protection components. Microgrids integrate distributed energy resources to provide reliable, environment friendly and economic power to small/medium sized urban communities or to large rural areas. Furthermore, the ZSI protection with fault current direction judgment function is required. Imagine now if that generator suffers a major fault in its windings. Conference, April 2005. The necessary signal processing functions required to operate these relays are also emulated, allowing the protection system to be stand-alone and fed with instantaneous fault data. In spite of many economic and technical advantages of DG, high penetration of DG in distribution systems would cause some negative impacts on distribution network operation such as increase of fault current level, false tripping, etc. This study considered the system consisting of a renewable energy plant. Symmetrical Component Networks," Georgia Tech Protective Relaying An important concept in the application of directional overcurrent relays is polarization. The applied fault calculation method is described briefly. About this research, output signals from differential evolution algorithms are led to decide the viability of the given arrangement in securing overall microgrid while working with grid-connected or grid-disconnected modes. Available online: https://www.epri.com/#/pages/product/000000003002016197/?lang=en-US. Moreover, the protection coordination problem is formulated as a constrained nonlinear programming problem to determine the optimal relay settings. This generator outage can cause some mis-operation in tripping order as a successive fault occurs inevitably. The OCR relay designed above can be modified to behave also as a directional O.C. Inverter-based Resources (IBRs), including Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs), exhibit different negative-sequence fault current characteristics compared to conventional synchronous generators (SGs). ... As part of it, [11][12][13] has discussed Directional Overcurrent Scheme where the fault is detected through both voltage and current sensors. There are a variety of concepts by which this task is done. Examples of other phase directional relays n Basler 67 directional relay • Uses quadrature polarizing voltage • Has a pickup of .75 VA at MTA • Has a variable MTA options – Continuously adjustable from 0 – 90 degrees – Switch selectable at 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees On the other hand, ... B. Directional Negative Sequence Overcurrent 67Q Figure 7, Figure 8, and Figure 9 also show the response of the 67Q element of relay R50 under SG, FSC, and VDE-AR-N 4120 scenarios. Jika terjadi kesalahan dalam pemilihan pentanahan generator akan menyebabkan kerusakan yang sangat berarti pada peralatan tersebut. In the reverse-current direction, the current experiences a phase-shift of 180 degrees from that of the forward-current direction, at which point the generator acts as a load to any other generator(s) on the network. This paper will review the mainstream methods by which 67 type directional decisions are made by protective relays. The relay typically consists of two elements. The focus of this paper is to introduce a new protection system for double bus and to familiarize with substation automation to Bangladesh where the power system is very detailed, complex and quite aged. To secure the system operation, distance protection is assigned to protect transmission lines. Directional elements need to be able to differentiate between load current and fault current when two sources are present in the distribution network (closed-loop). This paper will review the mainstream methods by which 67 type directional decisions are … As illustrated in this paper, such misoperation problems can be eliminated effectively by utilizing a decoupled sequence control (DSC) scheme in FSC WTGs based on the recent VDE-AR-N 4120 Technical Connection Rules. In the forward-current direction, the generator acts as a power source, sending electrical power to any loads connected to the generator bus. And Test of directional recloser and directional distribution automation FRTUs is also carried out to validate the directional elements and fault indication function of these bidirectional devices using real-time power system simulator. The test feeder was simplified to be an equivalent four-bus test feeder for relaying purpose. The fault direction may be forward (between relay and grid), or reverse (between relay and source), the normal power flow being from source to the grid. Use of definite time overcurrent relay along with directional overcurrent relays has been proposed for the reliable protection scheme. ... Alternatively, directional overcurrent relays. The drawback noticed from the corresponding paper that there is lack of harmony between primary and secondary relay, and the relay coordination collapse as secondary works before the essential relay. This makes the directional overcurrent relays more costly than the non-directional type. Here, the voltage polarity never changes, but the direction of current does change depending on whether the generator is acting as a power source (charging the battery) or “motoring” and acting as a power load (discharging the battery): A generator acting as a source (in this case, to charge the battery) is fulfilling its intended function. If we reversed the source and load, you could swap the phasor diagrams above for each relay. In addition, the proposed method is verified on the distribution network with/without distributed generation which is modeled on Matlab/Simulink software. This paper first studies the key differences between the WTGs and SG by comparing their equivalent negative-sequence impedances with SG's. Thus, an AC directional protective relay requires at least two signal inputs: one representing line current to be monitored, and another serving as a polarizing or reference quantity to be used for phase comparison. A real time digital simulator (RTDS) is used to model a sample FREEDM system in order to verify the proposed protection scheme. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan analisis ulang penyetelan kordinasi rele proteksi yang ada seperti rele pengaman gangguan tanah (Ground Fault Relay) serta menggambarkan kurva karakteristiknya. This is a fault, so:. 67 Directional Overcurrent Relay. In this paper, the results of a relay co-ordination study of an existing ungrounded medium voltage (MV) network are presented. Page 15: Style Number Example The proposed scheme is applied to the power distribution network of the IEEE 30-bus system equipped with synchronous and inverter-based DG. The acceptable performance of the proposed protection strategy is verified through comprehensive fault studies conducted on a realistic study system simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment. Without utilizing costly communication systems, the existing protection strategies fail to reliably detect the occurrence and direction of faults in the inverter-dominated microgrid. The PSDEs of the R A and the R B measure the angles, ... As indicated by (5) and (6), there is approximately 180 degrees difference between the angles of the positivesequence impedances seen by a relay, under forward and reverse symmetrical faults. Depending on the type and control of IBR, their negative-sequence current contribution can be substantially lower in amplitude and different in phase. Modern microprocessor-based directional relays have a definite advantage in this regard over legacy electromechanical relay designs, in being able to intelligently select the best polarizing quantity to use during fault conditions. For this study, Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) which is a part of a closed-loop relay test system is used. Hal ini dapat dicapai dengan cara memasang rele 67N, sehingga ketika terjadi gangguan hubung singkat 1fasa ketanah pada salah satu feeder, rele 67N akan segera mendeteksi gangguan tersebut sehingga trip pertama kali dan suplai daya ke beban tetap berlanjut melalui feeder yang lainnya [5], ... Dengan mempertimbangkan adanya double feeder, maka untuk meningkatkan keandalan sistem dari segi sistem proteksinya, harus ada koordinasi ketika salah satu feeder mengalami gangguan 1 fasa ke tanah. Overcurrent relays are widely used for power systems protection. Design of the distance protection of multi-source systems is described. The objective of this white paper was to summarize the distinct fault response characteristics of inverter-based resources (IBR) compared to conventional synchronous generators (SGs), with focus on the negative sequence current contribution during unbalanced faults. The possible faults that could be detected using this technique include the single phase to ground fault, the phase to phase fault and the double phase to ground fault. A smart grid is a modernized electrical or digital information and communications technology to gather and act on information such as information about an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. Abstract Directional overcurrent relaying (67) refers to relaying that can use the phase relationship of voltage and current to determine direction to a fault. The protection scheme implemented addresses the existing protection challenges encountered due to the presence of both distributed generators and inverter interfaced distributed generators in the same system. Directional overcurrent protection is used when it is necessary to protect the system against fault currents that could circulate in both directions through a system element, and when bi-directional overcurrent protection could produce unnecessary disconnection of circuits. However, if the fault happens to significantly reduce the line voltage of the failed generator, the directional relay may receive too weak of a polarizing signal to properly operate, and thus may fail to trip the generator’s breaker connecting the failed generator to the bus. Boundary conditions are presented by generalizing the fault current calculation for several values of the MV network cable capacitances. The challenges are mainly due to the limited fault current contributed by the DGs during the fault. Finally, it is verified that the proposed algorithm can determine the correct direction regardless of lower zero-sequence voltage than threshold value. Dual setting relays are equipped with two inverse time-current characteristics whose settings will depend on the fault direction. ... Dengan mempertimbangkan adanya double feeder, maka untuk meningkatkan keandalan sistem dari segi sistem proteksinya, harus ada koordinasi ketika salah satu feeder mengalami gangguan 1 fasa ke tanah. Directional overcurrent relaying (67) refers to relaying that can use the phase relationship of voltage and current to determine direction to a fault. Relays manufactured by Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories having directional protection elements for ground and neutral currents, for example, use a proprietary algorithm called “Best-Choice Ground Directional Element” logic to select from one of several real and calculated polarizing quantities (e.g. Traditional directional overcurrent relays utilize the reference voltage phasor for estimating the direction of the fault. Concerning short circuit current direction detection, there are many approaches for detecting the fault current direction, ... where min , and max are the angle limits which represent the forward operation zone of the relay taken to be -135° and 45°, respectively based on. This has a potential to provide a higher local reliability than that provided by the power system as a whole. The difference in phase shift between forward current and reverse current will be 180 degrees. This large difference is used by the PSDE to reliably determine the fault direction, ... Distributionside protection, e.g., for radial and ring-main units [2], mostly employs non-directional relays. Directional overcurrent relaying (67) refers to relaying that can use the phase relationship of voltage and current to determine direction to a fault. The proposed scheme demonstrates its feasible performance in detecting nonlinear high impedance faults with low voltage and current variation for maximum trip time required of 2 cycles. For this, the existing algorithm and its problem are investigated. The directional feature acts as a switch to allow current to pass to the O.C. The validation shows this method can correctly judge the fault current direction within shorter time than state of art method. Ground Directional Overcurrent Relay … Section IV presents the basic operation of unidirectional and directional relays as it is used in practice in closed-loop operation. Minimum relay settings are determined and a current margin factor α is introduced. The proposed formulation is tested on the distribution portion of the IEEE 30 bus system with an emphasis on the effect of distributed generation addition. Moreover, the angular relation of the negative-sequence current and voltage is different under WTGs, which may result in the misoperation of directional negative-sequence overcurrent element 67Q. In addition, it presents a new fault detection technique based on instantaneous active and reactive energy that is measured and analysed at the relaying point. These directional overcurrent elements and fault indication of bidirectional devices are tested and is validated in various fault condition in distribution network with distributed generation using real-time power system simulator. This paper reviews the mainstream methods by which 67 type directional decisions are made by protective relays. Based on the analysis, the improved algorithm is proposed. Polarization is the method used by the relay to determine the direction of current flow. In an AC circuit, however, the only way to tell if the line current is going the wrong way is if we compare the current waveform against another “reference” waveform (such as line voltage). The objective is to show potential protection misoperation issues, identify the cause, and propose potential solutions. In continuation to the previous video, in this video we have explained the working principle of directional over cuurent relay. This paper shall describe a possible algorithm that could be used in order to perform cross phase polarization. In many developing countries where renewable energy power plants are typically located in rural remote areas, they must be connected to weak power distribution systems inevitably. The challenge of finding a suitable polarizing signal in a power system for a directional relay stems from the fact that voltage and current signal strengths may vary wildly under fault conditions, which is precisely when we need the protective relay to do its job. Directional Overcurrent Relays Types IBC, IBCG And mcv ,DEVICE FUNCTION NUMBERS FOR USE WITH EXTERNAL DIAGRAMS 52 Power Circuit Breaker 67 - Directional Overcurrent Relays, Type mc or Type mcv 67N - Directional Ground Relay, Type mCG a - Auxiliary Contact, 0;> en when Breaker Opens Dill - Directional Unit SI - Seal-in Unit with Target To secure the system operation, distance protection is assigned to protect feeders. The microgrid distribution frameworks, sporadic framework, fault attributes (regarding grid-associated mode) and the fluctuation of intensity in the power flow direction present difficulties. This protection scheme takes advantage not only of the system configuration but mostly of the solid state transformer capability and design to minimize any circuit and communication that are needed for a successful protection strategy. 67P Phase Directional Overcurrent 67SG Sensitive Ground Directional Overcurrent 67_2 Negative Sequence Directional Overcurrent 68 Blocking Relay / Power Swing Blocking 69 Permissive Control Device 70 Rheostat 71 Liquid Switch 72 Dc Circuit Breaker 73 Load-Resistor Contactor 74 Alarm Relay 75 Position Changing Mechanism Device No. Standard overcurrent relays cannot distinguish the direction of the current flow. There are a variety of concepts by which this task is done. With the integration of distributed generation (DG) to meshed distribution systems, the operating time of the protective system becomes a major concern in order to avoid nuisance DG tripping. This paper presents a directional overcurrent relay that used as a backup protection for distance relays in series compensated lines. The work is outlined by a practical example. Directional Overcurrent Ground Relays Types IRP, IRC and IRD For overcurrent unit: Entering the curve in Figure 24 at multiples of pickup equal to 4.6, the closing time for instantaneous over-current is 16 ms. Moreover, it accomplishes the astounding decrease in both the essential and secondary transfer working occasions, which results in a decrease in the all-out relay working time. One is a directional element, which determines the direction of current flow with respect to a voltage reference. The transient analysis verifies the superior performance of the proposed protection approach in enhancing the FRT operation of wind parks in adherence to grid code requirements. Xilinx® Virtex-7 FPGA, and frequency protection is deriving the minimum pickup maximum! 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