Bioremediation is a form of environmental cleanup which relies on biological organisms such as plants, fungi, and microorganisms like bacteria.Humans have been employing this technique for centuries, and in the late 20th century, it began to be applied more widely to an assortment of environmental problems all over the world. Presence of metals such as Hg, Pb, As and cyanide at toxic concentration can create problem for microbial growth during bioremediation of that waste. Bioremediation is a term that refers to a number of remediation technologies for treatment of both soil and groundwater using microorganisms (USEPA, 2012). Bioremediation bacteria is used to clean the oil spils in the ocean through bioremidation therir are specific bacteria for specific contaminants such as hydrocarbons ,which are present in oil and gasolin. Microorganisms are essential for a key alternative solution to overcome challenges. bioremediation is dependent on an interdisciplinary approach involving such disciplines as microbiology, engineering, ecology, geology, and chemistry. Bioremediation is a cost effective and nature friendly biotechnology that is powered by microbial enzymes. Bioremediation can be a cheaper alternative to other technologies used for pollution mitigation. Phytoremediation = Phyto (Plant) + Remedium (Restoring balance or Remediation) In this sense, biotechnology is a technological tool that contributes to sustainable development, offering solutions to serious pollution problems, for being an area of ? The problems associated with contaminated sites now assume increasing prominence in many countries. In … Bioremediation is the use of micro-organisms, plants or fungi to enhance the conversion of harmful / toxic environmental wastes and contaminants into harmless / non-toxic substances. Related Journals of Bioremediation Bacteria . The concept includes biodegradation, which refers to the partial and sometimes total, transformation or detoxification of contaminants by microorganisms and plants. What is Bioremediation? 1. Bioremediation is the exploitation of biological activities for mitigation (and, wherever possible, complete elimination) of the noxious effects caused by environmental pollutants in given sites. However, there are a number of problems which are encountered with bioremediation as well. Further investigations aimed at the identification of the mechanisms involved the characterization of biosorbents, and advances in genetic engineering are required. Bioremediation is typically used to treat sites contaminated with organic substances (USEPA, 2001a), but it can also be used to immobilize inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, although this is a developing area (Sharma & Reddy, 2004). Bioremediation of waste mixtures containing metals such as Hg, Pb, As and cyanide at toxic concentration can create problem (Madsen, l99l). This removes the risks involved with transportation for treatment and elimination of contaminated substances. This is because microbial bioremediation is the most common type. Bioremediation comprises various techniques that incorporate microorganisms to clean a polluted region. A large number of enzymes from bacteria, fungi, and plants have been reported to be involved in the biodegradation of toxic organic pollutants. This makes it different from remedies where contaminated soil or water is removed for chemical treatment or decontamination, incineration, or burial in a landfill. These specific microbes consume and break down the pollutants when they are introduced to a contaminated site. Bioremediation is a key technology that has proven to be of inestimable value for the control and management of contaminants with the aid of microorganisms. Professional bioremediation is the beginning of a medical detox program. The problems associated with contaminated sites now assume increasing prominence in many countries. In the past disposal of these wastes meant digging a hole, dumping the waste material in, then filling it all in. 2. The important aspects of using GEMs in bioremediation, such as development of novel strains with desirable properties through pathway construction and the modification of enzyme specificity and affinity, are discussed in detail. Microbes are often used to remedy environmental problems found in soil, water, and sediments. Also, waste products are usually not generated, as bioremediation often results in complete degradation of the contaminants. ?multidisciplinary application it is developed in diverse areas, such as: agriculture, health, production of food and, protection of the environment. Bioremediation in this sense involves the cleanup of blood and bodily fluids that can pose health risks such as hepatitis, HIV, and MRSA. Additionally, since This method of bioremediation will help mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose of it elsewhere. Bioremediation does require for the DNA in the bacteria to be genetically altered so as to be able to properly clean the contamination. [12] Disadvantages. When compared to standard practices, effluent volumes generated by bioremediation are substantially smaller reducing the problem of sludge disposal. The ability of surface bacteria to degrade a given mixture of pollutants in ground water is dependent on the type and concentration of compounds, electron acceptor and duration of bacteria exposed to contaminants. Until now, three types of limitations have restricted the use of bioremediation to cleanup contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons: inadequate understanding of how microbes behave in the field, difficulty supplying the microbes with stimulating materials, and problems with ensuring adequate contact between the microbes and the contaminant. Bioremediation is an ecologically sound and state of the art technique that employs natural biological processes to completely eliminate toxic contaminants. Bioremediation-18-Bioremediation: Techniques for Cleaning up a mess Waste products resulting from human life have always been a serious problem. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on the application of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in bioremediation. This imposes ethical issues among many, because some believe that since the process of altering the DNA genetically, it would upset the natural enviroment the bacteria are introduced to, as the process is not a naturally occuring one. The problems associated with contaminated sites now assume increasing prominence in many coun- ... Bioremediation is an option that offers the possibility to destroy or render harmless various con-taminants using natural biological activity. Bioremediation includes a plethora of strategies and methods that are currently gaining more scientific and public interest because of its safety and cost-effectiveness. Nowadays, the world is facing the problem of different environmental pollution. NEET Biology Bioremediation Multiple Choice Questions make you feel confident in answering the question in the exam & increases your scores to high. Degradation of pollutants using bacteria in ground water is dependent on the type and concentration of compounds, electron acceptor and duration of bacteria exposed to contamination. Bioremediation is a biological mechanism of recycling wastes in to another form that can used and reused by other organisms. Practice more on a regular basis with these NEET Biology objective questions on air pollution and improve your subject knowledge & problem-solving skills along with time management. Bioremediation methods 2.1. These characteristics make bioremediation techniques potentially ideal for detoxification of chemical pollutants. Description: 4-2 Typical Enhanced Bioremediation System Enhanced bioremediation is a process in which indigenous or inoculated micro-organisms (e.g., fungi, bacteria, and other microbes) degrade (metabolize) organic contaminants found in soil and/or ground water, converting them to innocuous end products. Most of the time, when the term ‘bioremediation’ is used it is in reference to the use of bacteria or other microorganisms unless otherwise stated. An example of ancient bioremediation is the use of … There is a big misconception that killing mould is the answer to a mould problem. Bioremediation of toxic organics by fungi is the most sustainable and green route for cleanup of contaminated sites and we discuss the multiple modes … Therein lies the third significant problem faced by bioremediation; we do not yet have a sufficient understanding of the biological processes and reactions involved to always predict all of the effects of using bioremediation on a site, some of which could be undesirable. The application of this type of bioremediation process in large scale remains, however, a challenge, and a preventive approach to metal pollution problems is therefore encouraged. Most mould remediation companies use harmful chemicals such as bleach, Tri Sodium Phosphate and other so called mould killers. 2. This also makes them ideal players in bioremediation, which uses these biological organisms to clean up environmental problems. Bioremediation can occur on its own There are some disadvantages and challenges associated with bioremediation. Today these waste products range from raw sewage to nuclear waste. [12] 3. Plants have also been used to assist bioremediation … In this paper, some of the obstacles, both scientific and non-scientific, to bioremediation are discussed. It also plays vital role in cleaning the environment from pollutants and contaminants by using the microorganisms and fungi. If the process occurs in the same place afflicted by pollution, then an in situ bioremediation scenario occurs. This cheap, safe and environment-friendly method of treating environmental wastes and contaminants was invented by George M. Robinson, a petroleum engineer, while he served as an Rather than using standard cleaning agents like bleach or ammonia, crime scene cleaners use enzyme cleaners to rid the scene of harmful substances. In situ bioremediation can result in complete degradation of pollutants into harmless products on site. Bioremediation It is a process that uses mainly microorganisms but also plants, or microbial or plant enzymes to detoxify contaminants in the soil and other environments. Bioremediation techniques are more economical than traditional methods and pollutants can be treated on site, thus reducing exposure risks for personnel. Water Pollution: Causes & Effects, Eutrophication, Algal Blooms (previous post) Water Pollution Control Measures: Bio-Toilets, Bioremediation (this post) Water Pollution Water pollution is the addition/presence of undesirable substances to/in water such as organic, inorganic, biological, radiological, heat, which degrades the quality of water so that it becomes unfit for use’. Bioremediation is the branch of biotechnology which deals with the methods of solving the environmental problems. Contaminated lands generally ... Bioremediation is the use of microorganism metabolism to remove pollutants. It is usually the fastest, making it the go-to solution for sites that need to be cleaned up quickly. And nature friendly biotechnology that is powered by microbial enzymes some of mechanisms. Sludge disposal environmental problems, to bioremediation are discussed vital role in cleaning the environment from and... 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